How to choose a gearmotor combination

2023-03-14 14:30:50 admin

    {C}What is the typical power you need? In other words, what is a typical speed and torque operating point for your system? Choose a motor that is capable of providing this much mechanical power. (Most motors are classified according to their power.) Usually you will choose the smallest, lightest, most inexpensive motor that meets your specifications. You may also have constraints on the nominal voltage of the motor (e.g., you have a 12V supply available, so you want the motor to run at around 12V). Since the input electrical power is the current times the voltage, low-voltage-rated motors of the same power draw larger amounts of current.

·      {C}Once you have chosen a motor, choose a gearbox for the motor so that the speed+torque combinations you want from it (including the maximum speed and maximum torque you need) are under the speed-torque curve of the motor+gearbox combination. Also make sure the gearbox output shaft maximum torque specification is sufficient.

·        {C}Motors should not be run for long periods of time at stall, as they are likely to overheat, as explained in Brushed DC Motor Theory. It is fine if they intermittently stall. The allowable continuous operation region of the speed-torque curve depends on the thermal characteristics of your motor, but typically you don't want continuous operation at less than 1/4 or 1/2 of the maximum speed of the motor. You may need to choose a larger motor to meet this specification.

·        {C}You can further optimize your design for maximum efficiency in converting electrical power to mechanical power, to save on electrical power for battery-powered robots. Motors usually are most efficient at converting electrical power to mechanical power at high speeds. On the other hand, gearboxes with larger gear ratios generally have lower efficiency than gearboxes with smaller gear ratios. Don't worry about efficiency in converting electrical to mechanical power unless it is a critical issue for you.
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