An article to understand what is a stepper motor

2024-06-27 14:20:42 admin

1. Definition of stepper motor:

A stepper motor is a special motor that converts electrical pulse signals into corresponding angular or linear displacements. It forms a stepper motor system together with its matching driver. Every time an electrical pulse signal is input to the motor, the motor rotates. At an angle, its movement form is stepping, so it is called a stepping motor. This article will introduce the characteristics and applications of stepper motors.

2. The characteristics of the stepper motor:

①  High-resolution and high-precision positioning

Controlled by the pulse signal, the angular displacement output is proportional to the number of input pulses, realizing precise operation with the inherent step angle as the unit, and the step error will not accumulate, subject to external conditions (such as voltage fluctuations, temperature changes, etc.) Small impact. Taking the 1.8° step angle motor as an example, its resolution per revolution can reach 1/200 (i.e. 1.8°/360°), 1/400, and the error accuracy of each step can be controlled within ±5%. If the micro-step subdivision driver is used, higher resolution and precision can be achieved.

②  The system structure is simple

Under the action of the driver, the stepping motor can directly convert the digital pulse signal into angular displacement or linear displacement without motor speed or position detector, and can run correctly according to the pulse command.

③  Good control performance

The speed of the motor is synchronized with the frequency of the control pulse, so changing the frequency of the control pulse can adjust the speed of the motor in a wide range. Through the control of the pulse, there is no need to transition through the gear reduction device, and the extremely low speed and high torque can be directly obtained, thereby avoiding the loss of power and the influence of motion accuracy, and can quickly start, brake, and rotate forward and reverse.

④  Longer service life

Electronic commutation is adopted, without mechanical friction of carbon brushes and commutators, thereby reducing friction and increasing the service life of the motor.

3. Application fields

Based on the above characteristics, stepper motors are widely used in various digital management motion control applications, such as printers, stage lighting, ATM machines, security monitoring, industrial equipment, medical treatment, textile machinery, automobile industry and other products and fields.

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